Business Analysis comprises discussing future requirements with the major stakeholders, gathering these requirements and documenting the business objectives to determine the “to be” model and then analysing the “as-is” model to understand the actual change. The Scope of the change needs to be documented and agreed by all stakeholders.
Where the requirements are of a technical nature these will normally be documented in some form of Business Requirements Document (BRD) which after sign-off will be given to the solution provider, who should respond in the form of a Functional Specification Document (FSD) or similar. Business Requirements often use the MoSCoW principle of Must have, Should Have, Could have & Won’t have this time around (but could be a future enhancement) to define the priority of each requirement.
Where the requirements are of a business nature these will normally be documented in the form of swim-lane diagrams after completing a full set of process reviews.
Both technical and business driven projects can benefit from the development of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) diagrams. WBSs are an excellent pictorial form of representing the project and are a fundamental part of the visual representation of the project when discussing the project with stakeholders. WBSs can then be further broken down into a series of Work Breakdown Definition statements / Product Descriptions which provide an activity by activity breakdown of the work enabling estimating and establishing acceptance criteria. The development of a Strategy document (What) and a Plan document (How) is an alternative method of documenting the detail.
Business Analysis can also cover Process Flow diagrams, Analysis & Development, Process Migrations, Workflow, Data Analysis, Data Mapping, Data Extraction, Data Enhancement, Data Cleansing, Data Migrations & Gap Analysis.
The final stage in the Business Analysis function is to ensure that requirements have met by the solution. This may be met by some form of User Acceptance Testing (UAT); particularly in the case of a technical project.